(AGENDAWATCHDOG) – The Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine is a COVID-19 vaccine that was developed by Janssen Vaccines in Leiden, Netherlands, and its Belgian parent company Jansen Pharmaceuticals subsidiary of American company Johnson & Johnson’s.
It is a viral vector vaccine based on a human adenovirus that has been modified to contain the gene for making the spike protein of the SARS-Cov-2 virus that causes COVID-19. The body’s immune system responds to this spike protein to produce antibodies The vaccine requires only one dose and does not need to be stored frozen.
Clinical trials for the vaccine were started in June 2020, with Phase III trials involving around 43,000 people.On 29 January 2021, Janssen announced that 28 days after a completed vaccination, the vaccine was 66% effective in a one-dose regimen in preventing symptomatic COVID-19, with an 85% efficacy in preventing severe COVID-19, and 100% efficacy in preventing hospitalization or death caused by the disease.
The vaccine has been granted an Emergency Use Authorization by the US Food and Drug Administrationand a conditional marketing authorization by the Europena Medicines Agency (EMA).
The vaccine is based on technology similar to the Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine and the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. Using human adenovirus it is more similar to Sputnik V, but according to the first clinical trials might be less effective. It consists of a replication-incompetent recombinant adenovirus type 26 (Ad26) vector expressing the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein in a stabilized conformation.
The stabilized version of the spike protein – that includes two mutations in which the regular amino acids are replaced with prolines – was developed by researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases’ Vaccine Research Center and the University of Texas at Austin.
It also contains the following inactive ingredients: citric acid monohydrate, trisodium citrate dihydrate, ethanol (alcohol), 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBCD) (hydroxypropyl betadex), polysorbate 80, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and hydrochloric acid.